I.N.D.I.A. TRUST UPDATES
YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AN ACTION GUIDE


Presented by I.N.D.I.A. TRUST – EDI – Partnership initiative

FOREWORD:

I.N.D.I.A. Trust is calling for an increase in initiative, self-regulation, critical thinking, and lifelong learning skills among young people to meet the needs of the growing “knowledge economy.” If we want to be competitive in the global economic arena and maintain our high standard of living, we must rise to the challenge.

As leaders, how can we develop a systemic initiative to keep young people in school, learning academic and work skills effectively — motivated to be productive and engaged in their communities and the larger economy, and developing success-oriented attitudes of initiative, intelligent risk taking, collaboration, and opportunity recognition? Entrepreneurship education is one answer to this question, and an important tool to help every child and youth explore and develop his or her academic, leadership, and life skills.

It was a radical idea, driven by the goal of having all youth reach high standards of learning, which traditionally had been the expectation set only for a select group.

Yet the our nation still lags behind other countries in key knowledge domains and industries.

Why aren’t Indian youth doing better? Why are so many of our young people not even completing high school? Students from low-income families are six times more likely not to finish high school than those from high-income families. Unemployabilitys face severe obstacles to employment, liveable wages, and civic participation; many drift into crime and are incarcerated. This situation means a loss of opportunities for the individuals, substantial cost to the government and taxpayers, and a tremendous deficit in productivity for businesses and other organizations. Even those students who do graduate may not be well prepared. Further, our survey found that a majority of youths themselves report feeling unprepared in skills, knowledge, and attitudes when entering the workforce. This skills crisis is becoming more critical because the Indian economy is shifting. Not only will the traditional skills of reading, writing, and math be needed to thrive in this economy, but also tech- ecological savvy and self-direction. With the pace of innovation, many of the jobs our youth will hold don’t even exist yet. More than ever, we need to educate students to be continual learners. Youth learn more and perform better when tasks and skills demonstrate relevance to their current and future lives. Evaluation studies of high-school-level curricula in youth entrepreneurship report that students increase their occupational aspirations, interest in college, reading, and leadership behaviour after participation. Perhaps most critically, the experience of a sense of ownership in their lives was four times higher for youth-entrepreneurship programs than for students who did not take such courses. “Ownership” is a powerful concept. The Indian economy and way of life should be based on it. We own our homes and our cars. We strive to “own” our jobs, even if we work for someone else. Thus, we value both financial ownership and psychological ownership — being in control of resources and lives that are of our own choosing. High-school-level education in youth entrepreneurship provides the experience of ownership early in life. Preparing today’s youth for success and eventual leadership in the new global marketplace is the most important responsibility in education today. Providing them with guidance and opportunity at the most critical junctures along their educational journey can have a profound impact.Entrepreneurship education is an important tool to achieving these objectives. Corporate philanthropy is well positioned to play an essential part in encouraging entrepreneurship education and small-business ownership.

Model educational and skills-building programs are trying to fill this growing gap by preparing young people from low-income communities to work with peers from around the country while enhancing their business, academic, and life skills. By investing in entrepreneurship education programs, funders can open an exciting world of possibilities to young people, and help them develop new confidence, skills, and ambitions along the way. While philanthropy can play a part in encouraging entrepreneurship education, Government, Non-Governmental organisations, Public and Private enterprises and economic-development leaders must play a leading role. Government should authorize and fund to support training and certification for high school educators to teach entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship education should be universally available, to provide all students with opportunities to explore and fulfil their potential.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

If you ask India’s business and entrepreneurial leaders to comment on the quality of our current and future workforce, you hear a common refrain: Today’s young people are “not ready to work.” They lack necessary skills, especially in employability skills and even worse, they often lack the ability to work in teams, think creatively, or to interact effectively with colleagues or potential customers.

This “disconnect” between what employers want and what our youth bring to the table has major economic consequences.

Most importantly, young people — especially the growing number of high school unemployabilitys—lose the opportunity to enjoy successful and rewarding careers.

At the same time, Indian companies suffer from competitiveness disadvantages as they become less able to keep up in today’s “war for talent.” Meanwhile, overall Indian economic competitiveness has begun to suffer as our schools and communities lose the capacity to develop a more creative and entrepreneurial talent base.

According to many observers, an entrepreneurial mindset — a critical mix of success-oriented attitudes of initiative, intelligent risk-taking, collaboration, and opportunity recognition — is the missing ingredient.

This skills crisis is becoming more critical because the Indian economy is shifting. Not only will the traditional skills of reading, writing, and math be needed to thrive in this economy, but also technological savvy and self-direction.

With the pace of innovation, many of the jobs our youth will hold don’t even exist yet. More than ever, we need to educate students to be continual learners.

These multi-pronged challenges will require a host of different solutions that better engage young people in their education, while also building stronger connections between communities, businesses, and schools.

We believe that expanding the availability of youth Entrepreneurship Education resources should be a critical part of this solution.

These programs have a proven track record of keeping youth in school, and providing them with the skills, knowledge, and tools needed to start their own ventures, thus creating innovative entrepreneurs, managers, and employees.

To date, youth Entrepreneurship Education programs are in place in some communities, but most Indian youths have little or no access to such training.

We believe that local, state, and central policymakers must remedy this situation by making a major commitment to expanding the availability of youth Entrepreneurship Education.

The goal of the I.N.D.I.A. Trust Youth Entrepreneurship Strategy Group is to ensure that each graduate from a college or university that serves in a low-income community has educational opportunities to explore his or her entrepreneurial potential. While this objective sounds simple, achieving it will require extensive cooperation at all levels of government.

Locally, policymakers should:
Introduce entrepreneurship training in all schools, colleges and universities with special emphasis on those with large populations of youth from    low-income communities.
Increase funding to support teacher training, curriculum and professional development, and to evaluate program design and outcomes.
Develop strong partnerships between schools,businesses, and other community organizations, so that business leaders can serve as mentors,coaches, and provide support to local programs.

At the state level, policymakers should:
Adopt state wide  standards for youth Entrepreneurship Education.
Create formal Entrepreneurship Education partnerships between schools, colleges, and universities.

At the Central government level, policymakers should:
Include entrepreneurship skills as a desired competency in educational standards.
Expand funding for youth entrepreneurship in key programs operated by the Department of Education, the Small Scale Industries, and other   appropriate agencies.
Create Entrepreneurship Education system and provide it with resources to share best practices in the field and also serve as a nationwide advocate for youth entrepreneurship.
Consider adding Entrepreneurial Literacy Even with these important policy interventions, the future of youth entrepreneurship will depend on the work of entrepreneurs — from the students themselves, to their teachers, to Entrepreneurship Education advocates, and to the field’s leading business partners.

PREPARING TODAY’S STUDENTS FOR SUCCESS AND LEADERSHIP IN THE GLOBAL MARKETPLACE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT RESPONSIBILITY IN EDUCATION TODAY.

Providing them with guidance and opportunity at the most critical junctures along their educational journey can have a profound impact. Entrepreneurship Education is an important tool to achieving these objectives.

To date, youth Entrepreneurship Education programs are in place in some communities, but most Indian youths have little or no access to such training.

We believe that Entrepreneurship Education is a strong and compelling way of thinking about youth engagement. If you meet a young entrepreneur, you can’t help but be inspired.

Our question is not “should we do something?” Instead, it is “how can we make it happen?”


Detailed policy-action steps that can guide us in helping our country to achieve a powerful yet achievable goal: to ensure that every youth, especially those in low income communities, is exposed to entrepreneurship as part of a basic educational experience.

When it comes to entrepreneurs, Indians of all political stripes agree: we like them, we respect them, and we need them to help build our economic prosperity.

For many of us, the entrepreneur, embodied in the likes of Ambhanis, Narayana murthy or Premji, is an exemplary Indian character. Because the entrepreneur is so “quintessentially Indian,” many of us assume that entrepreneurs just emerge out of thin air.

Yet, history shows us that they don’t.

They need to be nurtured — by their parents, their teachers, and their communities.

Many Indian youth get this nurturing from parents who operate their own businesses, or from local schools or other support organizations. Unfortunately, many young people don’t have these opportunities because of poverty, underperforming schools, or other factors outside their control. If we want to engage the entire spectrum of our youth in the Indian economy, we will need to find ways to nurture the entrepreneurial spirit across the board.

We believe that an aggressive commitment to youth Entrepreneurship Education offers the means to achieve this equality.

This Guide makes the case for Entrepreneurship Education in the following ways:

First, it details the extent of the innovation challenge facing India’s young people, especially youth from low-income communities. It then details where and how Entrepreneurship Education can help engage youth and teach critical skills.

Thousands of local experiments in Entrepreneurship Education are underway around the country. These experiences provide a host of useful insights about what works and what is needed in the field. Finally, the guide offers suggestions for what we, as a leading educationist , can do to help prepare our youth to be economically productive members of society in the 21st century global economy.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION: THE BIG IDEA?

This Guide presents a strategic approach to expand the role of Entrepreneurship Education in india’s schools, and colleges will attract attention from central, state, and local policy leaders.

We believe that Entrepreneurship Education is a key part of the solution to several pressing national policy challenges, including high school unemployability rates, workforce readiness, and India’s economic competitiveness.

One of the biggest challenges facing the Indian economy is to how to grow a more skilled and productive workforce. With inevitable demographic shifts, it will not be enough to simply tinker at the margins. When it comes to building a strong future workforce, we face real challenges.

Consider the following:

The old methods of public school education worked well in the past, but today’s economy is radically different. It challenges us all to build new skills, innovative thinking, and talents that can no longer be nurtured with outdated methods.

This is not only an issue of social justice and equity, but lies at the heart of India’s economic competitiveness.

When our youth fail, India fails:

Our nation’s future prosperity depends on our ability to encourage a wide and diverse talent pool with an entrepreneurial mindset, and providing the skills to succeed, prosper, and compete in today’s economy.

When it comes to new methods and approaches, we believe that the sky’s the limit.

Despite many challenges, India should become one of the world’s most innovative and entrepreneurial societies.

But there is no single silver bullet solution to the problems of preparing Indian youth to succeed in the 21st century economy. We need any number of new ideas and models.

THE CHALLENGE AND THE OPPORTUNITY:

Millions of Indian youth has tremendous repercussions for them and their families, their communities, and for our nation as a whole. The most pernicious effects of the un-employability crisis are those that directly affect the students who have already dropped out.

Over the short term, un-employability suffer disproportionately from a host of social ills.

Pick a social problem, and we’ll find that un-employability are more likely to be affected.

These include:
Crime and incarceration
Unemployment and/or low-wage “dead end” jobs
Reliance on government benefits
Shorter life spans
Poor health
Civic disengagement

These problems soon ripple out into the wider community.

The social ills listed above put tremendous pressure on individuals and families.

They also generate huge costs for the rest of us as taxpayers.

Overall, researchers estimate that each un employable graduates extra societal costs of approximately Rs.2,60,000/- over the course of his or her lifetime.

These added costs take the form of funds for crime prevention and government benefit programs, as well as a host of other costs that we often fail to appreciate. Even worse, are the long-term economic consequences of an individual’s decision to un employability.

A college degree is the basic entry point requirements for a successful career in today’s economy: most jobs will likely require additional education. Students cannot enter into prosper- India’s education and workforce challenges have resulted from a complex mix of factors.

Globalisation and technology have altered work patterns and altered the skills needed to build successful work lives.

Our educational institutions have not been able to keep up with the rapid pace of change, especially as it relates to technological advancement.

Colleges are struggling to provide their students with the fundamental tools to succeed academically and in life.

We believe that India’s un employability crisis is a reflection of larger concerns.

In many ways, college un employability are early warning signs of growing problems in the educational system.

They are, in effect, a distillation of troublesome patterns. By effectively addressing the un employability crisis, we will also develop a host of solutions for other pressing educational challenges.

Until quite recently, we knew little about the extent of India’s college un employability phenomenon.

PROBLEM: INDIA’S UNEMPLOYABILITY CRISIS

The Causes of the Problem:
The unemployability crisis is no mystery; we have a good idea of what causes students to suffer it.
Basically,we face a needs-resources mismatch.
At-risk youth need more support, but teachers and administrators lack the resources to provide that essential safety net.
Indeed, the most common cause of un employabilitys is a failure to thrive. Students struggle in colleges, they cannot get needed supports, so they continue to struggle and fall further behind.
As this chasm between expectations and reality widens, students are tempted to take the line of least resistance: be unemployable.
This pattern runs counter to what is often portrayed in the media, where unemployable leave school due to the temptations of life on the street and other outside factors.
The reality is that unemployable tends to be pushed out of college, not pulled away.
While a variety of factors have led to the un-employability problem, a few causes tend to dominate.

Surveys of students show that:
47% claim that their classes were not interesting
43% missed too many days and could not catch up
42% spent time with people who were not interested in college studies
38% felt they had too much freedom and not enough discipline in their lives
35% had failing grades
72% have no communication skills required for employment.
80% are from rural sector un exposed to the organisational realities
30% undergo gender discrimination
47% says they don’t have mentors and guide
34% have behavioural problems
60% says their vernacular education system had put them in disadvantage

These statistics indicate that the un-employability crisis is not simply the direct result of concentrated poverty.

These structural conditions play a role, but an equally important factor results from the education system itself: our colleges are not adequately engaging young people.

Four of five of the above factors are related to school and college curriculum not reaching the personal interests of the students.

Young people need to see a connection between what they learn in school and colleges and future success in life.

Relevancy is critical.

Our careers without this educational foundation.

Over a lifetime, college un-employable earns less than the average employable college graduate.

In effect, college graduates, many of whom are ready to drive or to vote, are making a million dollar decision when they become unemployable. This lagging performance and growing inequality are occurring at a time when the nation’s “war for talent” is heating up.

India’s future competitiveness will suffer if our educational system sends poorly prepared workers, managers, and entrepreneurs into the workforce.

Our young people will not be able to compete with countries such as China, which are becoming major sources of scientific and technological talent.

Finally, the un-employability crisis’s real burden is one of opportunities lost. Behind the figures are young people whose full potential will never be realized.

They could have become fully engaged citizens who raised happy families and enjoyed prosperous careers.

They could also have become our next generation of entrepreneurial leaders and innovators.

Science advocates have contended that the Indian education system is not producing enough qualified scientists, engineers, and technicians.

Yet, it will be difficult to nurture new scientists without expanding the pool of potential students through outreach to disadvantaged students, and, yes, increased attention to the un-employability crisis.

Further, we should not overlook the opportunity to commercialise innovations and integrate entrepreneurship as a component of Indian Educational System (IES).

Finally, we need to build an overall educational climate that fosters rigorous academics, effective relationships in the community, and relevancy throughout the curriculum.

Colleges need to place higher expectations on students, and they must be held accountable on the most important measure: preparing students for success in the working world.

Entrepreneurship Education is a Relevant and Engaging Life Skill.

Youth Entrepreneurship Education offers one effective means to address these challenges of engaging students, building stronger support networks, and nurturing a more rigorous academic environment in our colleges and schools.

Entrepreneurship Education in stills a fundamental life skill.

Whether young people ultimately become entrepreneurs or work for others, they learn to invest in themselves and know they have options.

Entrepreneurial Education and training prepares people, especially youth, to be responsible, enterprising individuals who contribute to economic development and sustainable communities.

These connections can be built in numerous ways:
For example, career and technical education programs provide workplace skills that can be applied in connection with entrepreneurial experience.

Service learning programme:
engage youth by combining education with service opportunities, such as working for neighbourhood organizations or environmental groups, to practice social entrepreneurship.

Business leaders understand this connection:
For example, I.N.D.I.A. Trust has called for Indian colleges to do more problem-based learning in order to develop an entrepreneurial mindset.

Many of the existing entrepreneurship programs provide experiences that encourage students to use their own judgment, creativity, idea generation, goal setting, and problem solving skills.

Second, we need to build a better support network for struggling students.Un-employability rarely appear out of nowhere. Many at-risk students show signs of potential trouble in teens or even earlier. At risk indicators, such as poor attendance, are widely understood and recognized by educators but lack of resources means that youth fall through the cracks. If we want to engage them with new educational tools, we need to keep them in school. Thus, a strong early warning mechanism, along with the ability to respond and support at-risk kids, is needed.

INTEGRAL TO THE SOLUTION: ENGAGING YOUTH IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP
how to “invest” in their own potential.
Youth from low-income communities will learn through entrepreneurship to make money doing something they enjoy while also learning personal finance skills and how to budget and invest.
Decades of experience indicate that these skills cannot be taught through classroom lectures alone.
They are acquired through experiential learning where youths are exposed to the risks, ambiguities, and creativity of building a real-life business.
In an effective Entrepreneurship Education course or experience, young people don’t just learn the theory behind starting a business, they live it through a ‘hands-on’ application!
What is Youth Entrepreneurship Education?
Can it be Expanded in India’s colleges
Youth Entrepreneurship Education is a viable approach to engaging our students by helping them develop entrepreneurial skills and experience what it is like to start a business venture.
Formal youth entrepreneurship curricula and programs have existed for decades and are building their research base, but the movement has recently begun to expand.

This momentum is building on the interest that Indian youth display for entrepreneurship. A recent survey in 2007 of Indian young people (ages 18-21) found that:
40% of young people would like to start a business someday.
63% believe that if they work hard, they can successfully start a new company.
59% know someone who has started a business.
26% agree that starting their own business would be more desirable than other career opportunities.

Entrepreneurship Education differs from other business or economics education programs, and can complement most financial literacy curricula. These programs teach youth how the economy works and how to manage one’s own finances.

Entrepreneurship educators can and should provide this economic and financial foundation, and they also provide a much broader range of skill sets and teach young people “EMPOWER YOURSELF BY INSPIRING OTHERS” .

Trend Analysis on Entrepreneurship Over the past decade, community leaders across our country — and around the world — have embraced entrepreneurship as an important tool in building wealth and in building local economies.

The concepts of micro finance and microenterprise, first pioneered by Nobel Prize winner Muhammed Yunus and Bangladesh’s Grameen Bank, are now a core component of international development strategies.

Closer to home, over 1,000 colleges have built Entrepreneurship programs (up from two in 1960’s) and nearly every indian state now has an explicit set of policies and programs to nurture and support local adult entrepreneurs.

There’s a good reason for this growing interest.

Research shows that new, fast-growing firms account for the majority of innovation and new job creation in the Indian economy.

In fact, these fast-growing “gazelle” businesses create roughly two-thirds of new jobs in our economy.

These high-growth entrepreneurs are the source of great competitive advantage for the Indian economy.

For the Indian nation to survive and continue its economic and political leadership in the world, we must see entrepreneurship as our central competitive advantage.

Nothing else can give us the necessary leverage to remain an economic superpower:
But entrepreneurship is not just about Apple, Google, or Starbucks.
Entrepreneurship has a profound bottom-line impact on improving people’s lives.
This effect is especially true for micro entrepreneur.
Youth Entrepreneurship Education comes in many sizes and flavours.

There is no one single right way to bring it the target audience, just as there is no one single right way to teach reading, math, or writing. Hundreds of organizations across India promote Entrepreneurship Education at the local level and a number operate nationally.

These organizations operate in a variety of settings, from rural to distressed urban neighbourhoods to Indian high-technology hot spots across the country.

Each uses its own approach but they all agree on certain core principles. Entrepreneurship Education does not just teach about how business or the wider economy works; it teaches a way of thinking and a way of approaching the world.

Entrepreneurship is the ability to create and build something from practically nothing. It is initiating, doing, achieving and building an enterprise or organization, rather than just watching, analysing or describing one.

It is the knack for sensing an opportunity where others see chaos, contradiction and confusion.

It is the ability to build a “founding team” to complement your own skills and talents. It is the know-how to find, marshal and control resources (often owned by others) and to make sure you don’t run out of money when you need it most Finally, it is the willingness to take calculated risks, both personal and financial, and then do everything possible to get the odds in your favour.

While we believe that engaging youth is a primary purpose of Entrepreneurship Education programs, these efforts also contribute other community benefits as well.

Among the most important is the role of entrepreneurship in developing the economies of local communities and in building wealth for local residents.

HOW DOES ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION WORK?
Entrepreneurship education helps students build more successful careers regardless of whether they take the “entrepreneurial leap” or become a “entrepreneurial worker” in someone else’s business.The entrepreneurial “mindset” improves the productivity of all workers so everyone wins. In today’s economy, successful careers require networking and flexibility that can be learned as students experience entrepreneurship education. The ability to promote the “brand called me” is becoming an even more important skill as the economy is more and more relying on contractors and consultants to perform the work organizations need to complete. Students can acquire these types of fundamental techniques, which are critical components of an effective future worker in the workplaces of the world through entrepreneurship education. A personal “locus of control” helps students engage more effectively in their education experiences thus improving academic performance while in the education system. Entrepreneur education allows students the opportunity to develop skills essential for success in the market places of the 21st Century. While the overall number of YOUTH entrepreneurs is growing, these companies face unique challenges. Many have lower revenues, lower growth rates, more limited access to outside capital and other resources. These disparities have a number of causes, but major factors include the limited availability of specialized training and the absence of a long family history of business ownership. Because many new YOUTH entrepreneurs have grown up without hearing about business discussed at the kitchen table, they may be less prepared for the challenges of a struggling business. If youth don’t learn business at the kitchen table, they should have the opportunity to learn about it in school or colleges or at their local community training center.

Entrepreneurship Education thus serves as a path to upward mobility in multiple ways, by keeping students in school and colleges to complete their educations, and by providing the skills and knowledge that will allow them to build wealth through founding their own business sing, and team building. Effective use of these new methodologies will require a serious commitment to professional development. Effective Entrepreneurship Education programmes engage local entrepreneurs as mentors, coaches, speakers and role models. It’s not enough to simply have teachers teaching a new class; new partnerships will be required.Partnerships with local business organizations, such as Chambers of Commerce, Small Business Development Centres, Entrepreneur’s Organization (EO) or local civic clubs, such as a Rotary, are also an integral component of Entrepreneurship Education. These partnerships bring new ideas to a school’s and college’s budding young entrepreneurs, but they also have an added benefit: they build stronger business education partnerships across the board. As business leaders begin to mentor students, they will also be more likely to support other school programs. These businesspeople can bring a classroom to life with relevant real-world experiences and stories that teachers, many of whom lack direct business experience, would not be able to share. Finally, college education and community bussiness leaders must invest in effective and accurate evaluation efforts. It is important they understand the techniques and tools that work best in engaging youth and in producing the next generation of young entrepreneurs. As part of this effort, communities should also consider creating an Entrepreneurship Education Innovation Fund that provides targeted investments to programs, schools, and teachers who act like entrepreneurs by generating new innovations in the educational system. Despite the many benefits of youth entrepreneurship programs, most young people do not have access to these educational opportunities. The leading programs, such as those operated by the EDI, serve tens of thousands of students each year. Yet, they are only touching a small part of the potential market. Few communities have embraced Entrepreneurship Education as an official and integrated part of their educational systems. In fact, no states have formal legislation that promotes Entrepreneurship Education at the school or college level Because Entrepreneurship Education programs often fall outside of a formal curriculum, the field has grown slowly. Successful programs are in place across India., yet we only have small pockets of excellence. There is no system in place that offers Entrepreneurship Education as an option for all students. If this system were to be introduced, what would it look like? The first and most important step would involve schools and colleges adoption of a formal Entrepreneurship Education curriculum. This curriculum could be adopted “off the shelf” from existing ‘best practice’ products, or developed in-house. As the curriculum is introduced into the schools and colleges, a commitment to professional development opportunities for teachers will also be required.

Many teachers will be new to the world of entrepreneurship and require training in how to support these new courses. In addition, effective Entrepreneurship Education uses a host of new teaching techniques, such as distance education, experiential learning, problem-based learning systems.

MAKING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION HAPPEN
Local visionary is no way to build a sustainable movement that offers opportunities to area students. Some schools and communities will require a nudge in the form of incentives or other encouragement to consider implementing Entrepreneurship Education. These incentives could take many forms. A community might help defray the cost of teacher training. Most Entrepreneurship Education organizations provide extensive training and support for teachers. While some of these costs are subsidized, teachers must still find funds to pay for travel and needed supplies. Community foundations and other investors can help seed new programs and fill this gap. Another form of incentive involves the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum itself. Current Entrepreneurship Education providers like EDI can provide the needed curricula, and COLLEGES will still need to align these programs with local, state, and central standards.

In this instance, educational institutions should look to the EDI –INDIA TRUST Entrepreneurship Education, which link the principles of Entrepreneurship Education to other educational outcomes. These standards have been used across the India and have also been adopted by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Within schools, programs can operate in formal classrooms (such as business and marketing education) or as an additional in-school or after-school activity.

Effective Entrepreneurship Education programs will require that local, state, and Central policymakers embrace Entrepreneurship Education as an effective tool for engaging youth and building the next generation of world-class entrepreneurs and a stronger more entrepreneurial workforce in our country. Ideally, this effort should proceed in cooperation with business leaders, who have the greatest interest in seeing local youth stay in school and embrace entrepreneurship. Below are suggestions for leaders at each level.

What Can Local Leaders Do?

At the local level, an ideal youth entrepreneurship initiative would include:
All students at all local schools and college level— especially potential “un-employability factories” with 40% or more of the students eligible for free education — have access to entrepreneurship training.
Available funds to support teacher training, curriculum and professional development, and to evaluate program design and outcomes.
Strong partnerships between schools, businesses, and community organizations, so that business leaders can serve as mentors, coaches, and provide other support to local programs.

Effective Entrepreneurship Education begins in the classroom itself, so local action to encourage schools to offer such training is an essential step. While nearly everyone agrees that exposing youth to entrepreneurship is a good idea, it is often difficult to move from that basic consensus to a point where schools offer a formal Entrepreneurship Education course. As requirements to teach the core academics become more stringent, educators have less flexibility to offer courses such as entrepreneurship or the creative arts. To date, Entrepreneurship Education has been implemented only when a visionary leader — sometimes a teacher, sometimes a school administrator — has made a personal commitment to make Entrepreneurship Education take root in the community.

WHAT CAN POLICYMAKERS DO?
The students learn how to unleash their imaginations and develop business ideas. After following the manual from ideas to business plans, the students operate their own business/service. The program is available nation wide with EDI.

What Can State Leaders Do?

At the state level, educational officials, education leaders, and the business community should unite in support of the following objectives:
Adoption of state standards for youth Entrepreneurship Education.
Creation of formal Entrepreneurship Education partnerships between  schools,  colleges, and universities.
Creation of a State Advocate or State Advisory Council for Entrepreneurship Education.
Creation of a State Entrepreneurship Education Innovation Fund.
Creation of State wide Youth Business Awards Programs.

Including Entrepreneurship Education in formal state wide education standards is the first and most important reform that can occur at the state level.

This basic step is an essential component in encouraging In addition to funding teacher training, many community organizations operate their own youth entrepreneurship programs.

These projects can be hosted by a variety of groups, including Chambers of Commerce, NCC and NSS, youth training facilities or other community-based organizations. Many localities can operate summer camps that focus on entrepreneurship. When communities embrace youth entrepreneurship, they certainly empower youth but also help strengthen community pride.

Students manage their own entrepreneurial ventures, and also help operate school-based store that sells snacks, supplies, and school souvenirs. The school is tightly linked to the surrounding business community. It participates and also sponsors partnerships with the local colleges and the Universities.

Create a State Entrepreneurship Education Innovation Fund:
While effective Entrepreneurship Education programs share common principles, there is no one best way to engage youth in the process of thinking and acting like entrepreneurs. Creativity and innovation on the part of educators and other partners are critical. And states should consider creating small pools of funding to help stimulate such innovation. These funds could be managed by a state advocate or advisory council, or by a state Department of Education. The fund would provide small seed grants — to support teacher training or development of new Entrepreneurship Education models — that would help advance the field. The fund could operate as a demonstration grant program or as an annual competition. This relatively small seed funding helped provide outside recognition to local programs, as well as encouraged other communities to embrace youth Entrepreneurship Education training. At the national level, the EDI can sponsor grant competitions for high-school and college-level programs at various annual conferences. Create State Award Programmes and State business plan competitions or Youth Entrepreneur of the Year awards programmes are a high-impact, low-cost way to get young people excited about entrepreneurial careers. Teachers and school administrators can introduce Entrepreneurship Education into their own classrooms. Beyond including Entrepreneurship Education in state wide curricula, a second important step involves partnerships at different levels in the education system. Colleges and universities should aggressively embrace Entrepreneurship Education in years to come. It makes sense for schools to tap into this emerging expertise. Colleges and universities can help provide training for teachers, development of new curricula, and mentorship for students.

Create State Advocate or a State Advisory Council:
States should create a State Advocacy for Entrepreneurship Education. This advocacy role is often based in a single, state wide office, but could also operate through a broader advisory council that includes educators, elected officials, business representatives, and other stakeholders. Every state should now include informal group such as NGOs and civil society organisations that helps build state wide networks of entrepreneurship programmes at all levels and sponsors activities tied to entrepreneur education.

INDIA TRUST-EDI PARTNERSHIP will commence the national dialogue on preparing youth with the skills needed to compete in the 21st Century. While policy decisions will likely be generated at the state and local levels, this does not mean that central policymakers should be hands-off. There are a number of critical areas where central investments are required to ensure that states and localities can effectively introduce Entrepreneurship Education in schools and community organizations. In addition, central policymakers need to support efforts that align national initiatives with ongoing efforts at the state, regional, and local levels. Within these broad categories of supporting policy alignment and investing in education innovations, several specific action items stand out:

As Government prepares to reauthorize the New education policies, it should consider new standards for Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial literacy should be included as an accompaniment to current standards of education.

In addition, a pilot program to provide entrepreneurship education to a statistically significant middle- and high-school population would provide invaluable information to support initial research on the effectiveness of Entrepreneurship Education in reducing drop-out rates, increasing relevance of core curriculum and promoting financial literacy and community economic development. New efforts to promote Entrepreneurship Education can also be generated in the Higher Education Act. Because most investment for education occurs at the state and central levels, the l government assumes an important advocacy and supporting role to ensure the expansion of promising best practices nationwide. Government agencies and programmes should focus on investing in best practices, information sharing and dissemination, and in providing additional support and resources for communities or students with special needs. Nodal agencies will likely assume a similar role when it comes to promoting Entrepreneurship Education and important charge of improving support for Entrepreneurship education. This is an important initiative, especially in wake of the current economic crisis. Entrepreneurial education is an effective way to present critical financial tools to young people in a format that is both relevant and accessible. Where possible, programmes in economics and Entrepreneurship Education should also be promoted and supported by the Public sector banks as young people need to learn how to invest in themselves, make money, and learn how to manage their assets. In many youth entrepreneurship programs, young people are helping their families with basic needs and shoulder great responsibility. The stakeholders should also commit to making these resources more readily available to those in need and work with the Department of Education, and other State departments on a scalability plan to expand youth entrepreneurship and financial education to all India’s youth. The best way to communicate to those lacking awareness of Entrepreneurship education resources is to make the resources available and accessible in existing gathering places in the community — public facilities utilized by members of the community. These existing places include, and are not limited to, schools, libraries, public recreation facilities, and local government offices. By leveraging the resources of practitioners and other professionals, awareness and access to resources can be met. Workforce Development Entrepreneurship Education can be and has been incorporated into ongoing programmes managed by the Department of Labour.

This office has a mission of preparing at-risk youth to become effective job seekers. We believe that these young people can also become job creators and equity builders by starting their own ventures. The entrepreneurship side is just a plus. The future depends on our generation and if we all learned how to run our own business then we would be able to live in a fully functional community. The mere fact that a kid knows about entrepreneurship is a plus in the job field.

Society is split into two sections; those that work for themselves and those that work for others.

In learning entrepreneurship you learn how to do both so you can work for yourself and work for others and are ahead of the curve. Include funding for Entrepreneurship Education. Any future investments, or investments in similar regional programs, should include explicit support for Entrepreneurship Education as an approved activity. Entrepreneurship Education Clearinghouse/Advocate Because entrepreneurship is at the heart of so many diverse challenges in India, it is universally popular. But Entrepreneurship Education as a policy is not explicitly recognized as an essential contributor to educational change, economic development, workforce development, juvenile delinquency, anti-poverty, micro-enterprise, and small business success.

Because entrepreneurship can cut across so many policy areas and disciplines, it is often difficult for Educational leaders to identify effective support programs and strategies.

A National clearinghouse that shares information on these policies could make an important contribution in disseminating effective models and “best practices.” INDIA TRUST has created its own Office of Entrepreneurship Education to serve as an advocate for Entrepreneurship Education. In addition to supporting new policy developments, this initiative would combine current online To date, the Division of Youth Services has made important contributions through programs like Youth leadership movement and other related efforts. These worthy initiatives need to be supplemented with new investments that promote entrepreneurship as another path for youth from low-income communities. In fact, EDI should consider creating a demonstration grant program that tests various approaches to providing Entrepreneurship Education resources to low-income youth..

Regional Development:
Youth entrepreneurship training is becoming a more important component of regional development initiatives. EDI-INDIA TRUST partnership is a case in point. . It expands on the vision of National Entrepreneurship movement by linking EDI-based efforts to similar initiatives underway in other countries. As part of the movement thousands of young people around the country will engage in workshops, competitions, and other programs that are designed to encourage them to embrace invention, innovation, creativity, and imagination.

This movement offer an excellent means to spread the word about the power of entrepreneurship and to get young people excited about the possibilities of owning their own businesses. As we celebrate the contributions of entrepreneurs in our economy we honour those individuals who have contributed to making our economy the job generator it has been. These celebrations also allow students and parents to see entrepreneurship as a career option for becoming self-sufficient in the future market places of the world. Education programs, business and community initiatives, and ongoing youth outreach efforts. This Office could assume the important role in improving the dissemination of information.

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
The mindset is one of the real “secrets” of India’s prosperity as it helps drives the creativity and innovation of our workers, our companies, and our entrepreneurs. This engine of innovation will be the primary driver of our future economic competitiveness. If we want India’s young people to be fully prepared to succeed in the 21st century, nurturing an entrepreneurial mindset—via widespread use of youth entrepreneurship education programmes — must become a core part of the Indian educational system. The unique characteristics of Entrepreneurship Education make it ideally suited to help address many aspects of the crisis facing India’s workforce. For example, these initiatives can help us address our growing un-employability crisis. Research into the factors that cause un-employability indicate that many students feel disengaged and bored in schools and colleges. Entrepreneurship Education offers a means to attack this lack of engagement head on. Yet aggressive entrepreneurship education can provide other significant benefits as well. Entrepreneurship Education helps in still an entrepreneurial mindset — a critical mix of success-oriented attitudes of initiative, intelligent risk-taking, collaboration.

SOMETHING YOUTH CAN SAY YES!
The un-employability crisis impacts our economy and even our national security. We cannot become a world superpower if we do not give our youth the resources they need to succeed.

The number one predictor of our youth’s future success is whether he or she will graduate — we can’t afford to let nearly one-third of our kids fail. Just conferring a diploma or a degree is not enough. Students must graduate with the knowledge and skills necessary for success in college, work, and life. INDIA TRUST interviewed college unemployable students and asked them why they so.81% said they would not have if the subjects were more relevant to real life. Teaching youth how to make it financially (and we are strong proponents of the growing financial literacy movement), how to own their futures as economically productive members of society, is both real life and relevant. Getting business leaders into classrooms to share their expertise and optimism is key. INDIA TRUST haS gone to so many conferences and briefings over the last two decades, and met with so many fascinating experts, that our head is spinning with endless data points and facts on the subject of graduate un-employability rates and India’s competitiveness in the global marketplace. We are reflecting now on why our cause — entrepreneurship education for youth — matters so much, especially considering the current economic crisis. The stakes are high, since it can actually be part of the solution to one of our country’s greatest challenges: how to bring economically at-risk young people into mainstream society. Not only is this an important contemporary civil rights issue, as power and influence in this country rests with those who own (it is worth considering that we teach our students to be employees but not to be owners), but it is an issue of India’s future and competitiveness. It is important to also point out that entrepreneurship is a fundamental life skill. Most employers these days want to hire a more entrepreneurial workforce. Did you know that, according to the Department of Labour, the average Indian will have 8 to 10 jobs by the age of 38? If we were going to have so many positions, we would sure look at our self differently — as less of an employee and more as a free agent. We have to hone entrepreneurial and networking skills and more — just to survive.

A business owner, , summed it up: My dream is not to die in poverty, but to have poverty die in me! We need to fast-track our work so we reach these kids and not lose another generation of students before we can teach them to fuel their dreams and have belief in their own potential. We hope you will join us and say YES! to education for all of our young people to explore their entrepreneurial potential, especially those in low-income communities
increased interest in attending college and heightened career aspirations
increased feeling of control over their lives
increased leadership behaviours   
increases engagement in school
increases students’ sense of connection with adults in business and the community
increases independent reading
increases business and entrepreneurial knowledge

TOP LEADERS ARE SAYING YES! TO YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP

EDUCATION IN INDIAN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES

WHAT LEADERS ARE SAYING…
We need to equip today’s aspiring entrepreneurs with every tool possible to succeed. That means making sure they receive a strong financial education that prepares them for the unique challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. A solid background in finance and business skills will help the next generation to compete and succeed.
Entrepreneurship training provides at-risk youth an opportunity to learn how to function in the marketplace and strengthen their community’s economy. High quality entrepreneurship training can help ensure a better quality of life for the individual entrepreneur and their community as a whole.
The most important economic stimulus package our nation can develop is combining quality education with an entrepreneurial attitude to meet the crisis of over HUNDRED million unemployable. We need to teach our youth to be ‘owners’ of their lives. I Say YES! to youth entrepreneurship education in our nation’s schools.
Youth entrepreneurship offers the promise of encouraging rural students to see that their opportunities can be greater then working in the local mill or mine. The skills provided by these programs might not be used right away, but the spark is one that can be nurtured for years – and carried back home to start that business and provide jobs, opportunity, and hope in their home town. –

WHAT EDUCATIONAL LEADERS ARE SAYING…
Preparing today’s students for success and eventual leadership in the new global marketplace is the most important responsibility in education today. Providing them [youth] with guidance and opportunity at the most critical junctures along their educational journey can have a profound impact. Entrepreneurship education is an important tool in achieving these goals
The economic engine of India is fuelled by the creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of its people. The most important thing we can do for our future is to nurture these values in our young people by providing educational opportunities for them to explore and learn about entrepreneurship. All of us in education should do what we can to inspire our students, build upon their interests and native curiosity, and engage them in meaningful learning.
Today’s students will work in multiple jobs over the course of their careers, possibly working for themselves, and this requires entrepreneurial skills. Not only must students have subject matter knowledge, but also they need 21st century skills to problem-solve, work with diverse people, and develop sophistication about areas affecting their personal well being, such as how to make good choices about their financial security. This can be a very exciting future for students -- but they must be empowered with knowledge and skills.
To thrive in our new world, our students need strong analytical, communication and interpersonal skills. They must be more entrepreneurial, willing to take risks and able to tolerate greater ambiguity. These challenges and opportunities compel us to re-examine our current education practices and banish any assumptions that what was good enough for us is good enough for our kids. This implies doing what works and transforming what doesn’t
Entrepreneurship provides students with the knowledge and skills necessary to build a successful career. These students learn lessons that can be applied in other areas of their life, such as leadership, math, writing, and speaking skills. Youth should be encouraged to take courses that enhance their understanding of business and financial matters and provide youth with confidence to follow their dreams in owning their own business.
Ideas like entrepreneurship education show that we can engage kids in ways that are relevant to their lives and teach them the content and skills they need to be successful. Entrepreneurship isn’t just about business, it’s about problem solving, critical thinking, and tenacity, skills that we want all students to leave school with regardless of their career path.
Learning how to bring new ideas into the world through entrepreneurship empowers young people to develop their talents and confidence while helping their communities. Entrepreneurship education helps connect youth to their futures by enabling them to see how possibilities can become realities.
I believe that Indian youth are among the world’s most imaginative populations, constantly inventing and reinventing themselves and the country’s youth culture, and forming businesses… Entrepreneurship education requires three things: well-targeted programmes in places of greatest need, expansion, and a steady focus on providing high-quality training. As a nation of innovators, we can do it all.
Education and entrepreneurship are two pillars of the India’s free enterprise system. All members of society benefit from a strong economy. A way to bolster the markets of the future is to plant the seed of entrepreneurship in the minds of our country’s youth today. Encourage creativity, innovation, risk-taking and, most of all,encourage our youth to pursue their dreams.

WHAT BUSINESS LEADERS ARE SAYING…
Without role models and examples of successful business people in their own communities, our youth often see the Indian Dream as either ‘hype’ or a pipe dream. Our young people need to know they have viable place in our market economy. EDI – INDIATRUST partnership is part of the solution to bring entrepreneurship to the young people who need it most. It’s a leveraged organization that will have a great ROI for our city and nation.
Every child needs hope and opportunity. Hope and opportunity are driven by education. If a child does not have opportunity in his or her education hope and opportunity dissolves .You get unrest and despair and violence. If you train more entrepreneurs they create more jobs and opportunities. We need to multiply that. The better job we do the safer the world will
INDIA TRUST believes in the power of entrepreneurship. We’ve partnered with EDI, ,to accelerate the pace of change in public education by supporting, connecting, and sustaining education entrepreneurs and innovators. We are pleased to be part of an initiative that is convening entrepreneurial leaders in public education to create a common agenda for broad-based systemic change in the field. We believe a core component of that change element is financial literacy and teaching entrepreneurship to young people from all communities, including lower-income communities. We understand the time is now to teach youth the lessons of our past and prepare them for changes in our future.

WHAT PHILANTHROPIC LEADERS ARE SAYING…
Entrepreneurship education inspires young people to do all the right things—understand the relevance of a good education, gain financial literacy, plan for financial independence, explore their talents, and most importantly, stay in school and develop pathways to college. All students, no matter where they are raised, deserve this chance for opportunity and growth. It has never been more important to India’s economic system than it is today for young people to be fully prepared to navigate successfully the vicissitudes of the world of work.
By any calculation, the steadily escalating impact of the un employability crisis requires immediate countermeasures and new ways of thinking about collegiate education. India cannot expect to compete in the global economy when 50 to 60 percent of our students do not graduate. Increasing the graduation rate by just 5 percent could lead to combined savings and revenue of almost $8 billion each year... Policymakers need to put entrepreneurship education at the forefront of their agendas.
By investing in entrepreneurship education programmes, funders can open an exciting world of possibilities to young people, and help them develop new confidence, skills, and ambitions along the way.
Youth the world over are increasingly expressing their desire to learn about and engage in entrepreneurship. Opportunities to encourage youth and youth to launch businesses, even while still young, are proliferating but more must be done. Young people in large numbers report that they want to play a significant role in eliminating poverty, improving their communities, and creating the future through innovation, imagination, and opportunity recognition.This is a generation that is excited about “making a job”and not just ‘taking a job.’
At a time when India’s leadership in the global economy is being challenged by a host of nations on the rise, we must give all young people the opportunities and encouragement they need in order to unleash their full potential. INDIA TRUST will expand entrepreneurship education to schools across the country—helping millions of students from all backgrounds to see themselves for the first time as the future business leaders and innovators our economy and society nee

WHAT COMMUNITY LEADERS AND SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS ARE SAYING…
Research indicates that greater connection with ‘real world’ activities and applications keeps kids engaged and in school. To the extent that we want to crack the code of the UN EMPLOYABLITY problem in the India, entrepreneurship education is an essential part of the combination.
At its most basic, educating youth about entrepreneurship provides them with financial and business skills they can use in every facet of their lives. More importantly, it gives them a path to follow for turning their ideas into thriving businesses, along with the inspiration and empowerment to do so. To stimulate entrepreneurial activity and develop the business owners and civic leaders of the future, there’s no better investment than education.
Too many young people just give up on their education when told, “ If you don’t go to college you won’t amount to anything.” Entrepreneurship education provides the motivation necessary for these high school and middle school students to see themselves as owners, even millionaires, and aspire to make it happen with pursuit of education. Even elementary school isn’t too early to start acquiring the knowledge and experience necessary to create an entrepreneurial-based, success-driven mindset. We need to all remember, “The Entrepreneurs of tomorrow are in our schools today.
We support the work of the Youth Entrepreneurship to place entrepreneurship education in every school in India, because we must make education relevant to our youth. We have seen firsthand the almost natural entrepreneurial spirits of young people here. I was one of them, starting my first business at age 20. I am an entrepreneur today because of that early experience. I believe that our kids are dropping out of high school at record rates because they don’t believe that education is relevant to their futures. How to make education relevant to their futures? Show kids how to create wealth, legally. That’s entrepreneurship.
During 2008 we had the greatest number of inquiries concerning our Entrepreneurship programs from college students than in any of the previous years. Young people today are starting and operating real businesses in numbers never considered possible. We must do all we can to support and encourage these Young Entrepreneurs.
Having professionals equipped with entrepreneurial abilities and the desire to be creative and innovative in the marketplace is critical for our economy to thrive. INDIA TRUST Career Advise Initiative has specifically identified the relevance of entrepreneurship in the context of the Business Management and Administration Cluster but we recognize the value of these skills across all career clusters. At both the high school and college levels students are enrolling in career technical education classes and seeing that these classes provide relevance and focus to their education. I am pleased that the SAY YES! campaign has identified how exposure to entrepreneurship will help students stay engaged in their educational pursuit
I know a secret which, if fully understood by our government, business, and community leaders, could have enormous positive implications for the future of our society.Simply put, the secret is this: Youth born into poverty develop special gifts that prepare them for business formation and wealth creation. They are mentally strong, resilient, and full of chutzpah. They are sceptical of hierarchies and the status quo. They are long-suffering in the face of adversity. They are comfortable with risk and uncertainty. They know how to deal with stress and conflict. These are the attitudes and abilities that make them ideally suited for breaking out of the cycle of dependency that so often comes with poverty, ideally suited for getting ahead in the marketplace. In short, youth from low-income communities have “street smarts,” or what we  call “business smarts.” Precisely because of their background — that is, because of their experience surviving in a challenging world — they are able to perceive and pursue short-lived opportunities that others, more content with their lot in life, can easily miss
We need to equip today’s aspiring entrepreneurs with every tool possible to succeed. That means making sure they receive a strong financial education that prepares them for the unique challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. A solid background in finance and business skills will help the next generation to compete and succeed.
Entrepreneurship training provides at-risk youth an opportunity to learn how to function in the marketplace and strengthen their community’s economy. High quality entrepreneurship training can help ensure a better quality of life for the individual entrepreneur and their community as a whole.
Preparing today’s students for success and eventual leadership in the new global marketplace is the most important responsibility in education today. Providing them[youth] with guidance and opportunity at the most critical junctures along their educational journey can have a profound impact. Entrepreneurship education is an important tool in achieving these goals.
Youth the world over are increasingly expressing their desire to learn about and engage in entrepreneurship. Opportunities to encourage youth and youth to launch businesses, even while still young, are proliferating but more must be done. Young people in large numbers report that they want to play a significant role in eliminating poverty, improving their communities, and creating the future through innovation, imagination, and opportunity recognition. This is a generation that is excited about “making a job ”and not just ‘taking a job.’
Research indicates that greater connection with ‘real world’ activities and applications keeps kids engaged and in school. To the extent that we want to crack the code of the unemployment problem entrepreneurship education is an essential part of the combination.